By Roger Crowley
A gripping exploration of the autumn of Constantinople and its connection to the area we are living in today.
The fall of Constantinople in 1453 signaled a shift in heritage and the top of the Byzantium Empire. Roger Crowley's readable and entire account of the conflict among Mehmet II, sultan of the Ottoman Empire, and Constantine XI, the 57th emperor of Byzantium, illuminates the interval in historical past that used to be a precursor to the present clash among the West and the center East.
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Additional info for 1453: The Holy War for Constantinople and the Clash of Islam and the West
People began to react against privatization, which they equated with being sacked from their jobs and losing their livelihood. The liberal policies of the government and global capital seemed to unite to threaten the livelihood of the Turkish working classes. The same process ushered in major international chain stores and supermarkets, which began to undermine the family owned grocery, greengrocery, hardware stores, and the like. Globalization began to hit the small and midsize entrepreneurs very hard and seemed to threaten them with pauperization, thus dashing the hopes of many to live the “good life” they had envisioned in the aftermath of the mass-media revolution of the 1980s.
The following chapters of this book are about the nature, character, and meaning of the conservative age in Turkey’s domestic and international political developments. CHAPTER 3 Socioeconomic Change and Accommodation I n the preceding chapter we defined Turkish conservatism as a movement that combines several strands of thought that span liberal economics, traditionalism, sociocultural parochialism, primordialism, xenophobia, and religious activism. This shows that conservatism in the Turkish context hosts several irreconcilable strands.
It seems as if, when faced with uncertainty, turbulence, and instability concerning the ethnic and religious identity and national solidarity of Turkey, the masses sought solace in going back to their roots and clinging on to traditions, customs, and mores, all of which are cloaked in religion. It is the complex of parochial, primordial, folkloric, and local customs and practices deeply rooted in the fading agricultural society of the country that is effectively penetrated and incorporated in the religious practices of the tarikat network, which provides the core of the conservative belief system in Turkey.