Download Advances in optical and electron microscopy by Tom Mulvey, Charles J.R. Sheppard PDF

By Tom Mulvey, Charles J.R. Sheppard

The volumes during this sequence hide the growth and innovation in optical and electron microscopy at a basic point. it's aimed toward microscopists and researchers not just drawn to microscope instrumentation but in addition in functions starting from organic ideas to fabrics examine and commercial inspection

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In comparison with conventional electron microscopy, the advantage of electron holography stems from the fact that it records both amplitude and phase of the image wave, thereby avoiding loss of information. Consequently, without being restricted to pure phase or weak objects, it is possible to determine phase and amplitude of the object wave by deconvoluting the aberrated image wave from the influence of the objective lens aberrations. The resolution is then ultimately limited by the envelope function and the point resolution is extended to the lattice resolution as set by the technical performance of the microscope.

Gabor (1948, 1949) suggested electron holography as a remedy for these problems. Later (Gabor, 1957) he wrote: Even if the correction [of spherical aberration] should not succeed because of lack of sufficient mechanical precision of the electron optical components, we have at hand the procedure of "wave front reconstruction", suggested by the author, allowing the a posteriori compensation of the aberrations proceeding from an aberrated image taken with coherent radiation. In comparison with conventional electron microscopy, the advantage of electron holography stems from the fact that it records both amplitude and phase of the image wave, thereby avoiding loss of information.

The object covers only half the object plane while the other half serves as a reference area. In the intermediate image plane, the image waves of the object and reference area are made to interfere by means of the electron biprism. The interference pattern is recorded as a hologram at a fairly high magnification in the final image plane. ELECTRON IMAGE PLANE OFF-AXIS HOLOGRAPHY 35 in the back focal plane; the positive and negative signs hold for the image and reference waves, respectively. The first term of the phase factor describes the tilt of the respective wave, and the second its shift Δ by the half-width Δ/2 of the interference field in the image plane perpendicular to the biprism filament; Q is the direction of illumination in the object plane with respect to the objective axis, Q = 0 corresponding to axial illumination.

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