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By Angelo Rasanayagam

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The British had also favoured the recruitment of Pashtuns into the armed forces because of their proven fighting qualities, and they were thus well represented in the Pakistani officer corps. '~ Although passions had cooled by September 1955, Daoud's closure of the border for a five-month period drove the desperate Afghans to seek Soviet help once again. At Daoud's request the 1950 transit and barter agreements were renewed. The visit of Bulganin and Khrushchev took place in December that year.

Abduh, however, was consistent in his efforts to reconcile Islam with the intellectual demands of a rational and scientific modernism that had enabled a dynamic and industrialized Europe to impose its will on vast areas of the Muslim world. His ideas had a special appeal for educated Muslims who wished to modernize their economically and socially backward societies without abandoning their Islamic faith and cultriral heritage. One of them was Sir Sayyed Ahmad, who founded the Anglo-Oriental College in Aligarh, India, which exercised a great influence on forward-looking Muslim leaders of the sub-continent.

So was the US response to Afghan requests for economic assistance. When Zabuli was in Washington he also tried to obtain a loan to finance a development plan. Zabuli himself was a self-made capitalist, a pioneering entrepreneur who had set up an investment bank, later called the Bank-iMelli, which had largely contributed to the beginnings of commercial agriculture (cotton in the Kunduz region) and industrial development in pre-war Afghanistan. Zabuli came to the US with a modest, well-conceived plan, with an integrated approach to economic development.

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