By Freya Stark
This is often the tale of back-country Turkey, a space that even within the twentieth century continues to be stubbornly tied to antiquity. the writer traveled via it by means of truck and horseback, usually by myself. She reached areas little visited and not written approximately. the rustic humans welcomed her with generosity unrelated to their meager resources.
She was once touring in time to boot, and located value in recalling the lifetime of Alexander the nice. Twenty-two centuries in the past he used to be the 1st to dream of a united global.
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The first step toward this new national identity required a new base for the government, removed geographically and symbolically from the old capital of the sultan. On October 13, 1923, the constitution was amended to establish the capital of the Turkish state at Ankara, not Istanbul. Ankara was located in the very heart of Turkey, with none of the links to the sultans of centuries past that marked the streets of Istanbul, and was a far more primitive place than the glittering capital had been.
This is another remarkable example of the changes Turkey experienced under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal. Imagine what it would have been like to live during that time, when so much of what was familiar was disappearing. The way you dressed, the alphabet you used to read and write, even the clocks and calendars used to measure time, all changed. With his vision, his political power, and his will, Kemal had shaped a brand-new world from the ashes of the Ottoman Empire. A New Economic Policy In October 1929, the Great Depression struck, setting off an international set of economic crises.
Held a series of meetings calling for the removal of the Armenian population to a different location, stating their concerns about foreign influences—particularly Russian—during a time of war. What followed, from mid-June to late August of 1915, was a tragic series of violent actions. First, Armenian men were ordered to report to a central location, where they were briefly jailed and then shot. Next, the women, elderly, and children were ordered to march, carrying a few possessions, for hundreds of miles, heading for the desert or the mountains.