By Christian Grovermann
This examine combines econometrics and agent-based modelling to judge the affects of a number of pesticide use relief thoughts within the context of Thai highland agriculture. Pesticide productiveness and pesticide overuse are quantified, whereas determinants of the adoption of thoughts in pesticide use relief are expected. On that foundation, the Mathematical Programming-based Multi Agent method (MPMAS), a bio-economic simulation version, is used to ex-ante assess the adoption of built-in Pest administration (IPM) together with a chain of market-based tools that increase the transition to extra sustainable pest keep watch over practices. The MPMAS simulation effects exhibit that, over 5 years, it truly is attainable to convey down degrees of pesticide use considerably with no source of revenue trade-offs for farm brokers. A proportional tax, expanding the cost of man made insecticides via 50% on normal, including bio-pesticide subsidies for IPM proves to be the main low-cost and achievable coverage package deal. IPM practices are followed by way of as much as seventy five% of farm brokers and pesticide use discount rates succeed in as much as 34%.
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Extra info for Assessment of Pesticide Use Reduction Strategies for Thai Highland Agriculture: Combining Econometrics and Agent-based Modelling
To collect socio-economic and agricultural production data, a structured questionnaire survey was carried out in the Mae Sa watershed, which is comprised of twelve villages that practice agriculture. Figure 3 shows the location of the study 21 area within the region, as well as the location of individual villages in the watershed. 20% of the farm households in each of these villages were randomly selected, which resulted in a total of 295 farm households being used for the survey. A one-year recall period, from April 2009 to March 2010, was used for the face-toface interviews, with information about the farm households themselves as well as the land-use and cultivation practices gathered.
As the above mentioned studies illustrate, analytical approaches vary in terms of scope and methodology, which may help explain why so far there has been little or no consensus on the exact impacts of pesticide use reduction policies. One can ascertain that, especially in the context of tropical agriculture, to date little attention has been paid to investigating the implications of pesticide use reduction policies on land-use, the environment and smallholder livelihoods in a comprehensive manner.
Whereas taxes are considered to be rather ineffective due to the inelastic demand for pesticides in relation to prices, they can generate revenues, which can be gainfully used to promote sustainability innovations. Following the introduction, this study first tests the validity of the above statement in the context of Thailand’s highland horticulture sector, and then evaluates different methods that may be used to redistribute or invest the tax revenues generated. The main criterion used for choosing the right tax rates was to find a compromise between generating sufficient government revenues and practicability.