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By Jacob M. Landau

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However, Mustafa Kemal neglected to add that his inkilab was in truth an extension of a reformist movement whose first manifestations had appeared as far back as the beginning of the nineteenth century. Secularism The term secularism, usually employed in English to represent the fifth arrow, does not exactly correspond to the word layiklik as used Paul Dumont 36 by the Kemalists. sm. has a m~ch more general meanlllg than t:lIC1sm: The basIC conflIct In seculansm is not necessarily between religion and the world, as was the case in Christian experience.

The CUP, and Mustafa Kemal personally, wanted all layers of the population to participate in politics so that their group could represent the entire Ottoman nation. They sought members in the center as well as in the peripheral provinces, from among educated people and illiterates; rich and poor; city dwellers, villagers and nomads. This concept of mass participation, and the need to enlighten and attain the approval of the common people became cornerstones of Kemalist ideology. Political participation, as organized by Mustafa Kemal in Libya, was channeled through clubs and mass meetings.

3. A. A. Lowther, Benghazi, 21 December 1908, PRO, FO, 195/2271. 4. Fontana, loc cit. 5. Italian Consul Piacentini to the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tripoli, 18 October 1908, Archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Rome (ASD), SP, pac. 5. 6. Alvarez, loc cit. (n. 2). 7. Fontana, loc cit. 8. Alvarez, loc cit. (n. 2). 9. Alvarez, loc cit. (n. 2). 10. A. Lowther, Tripoli, 9 October 1908, PRO, FO, 195/ 227l. 11. Fontana, loc cit. 12. Fontana, loc cit. 13. Afetinan, "Atatiirk'ii dinledim: Trablusgarp'ta Hiirriyete Kar~l isyan," Belleten, VIII, 31 (1944), pp.

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