By Rob Peters (auth.)
` a unprecedented publication mendacity on the interface among ecology and palaeoecology that merits a spot within the forests portion of your library.'
The Holocene, 8:4 (1998)
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Multinervis. 9. Fagusjaponica. 10. Fagus grandifolia subsp. Mexicana. 11. Fagus longipetiolata. 12. Fagus lucida. 13. Fagus hayatae subsp. Pashanica. 14. Fagus crenata. 15. Fagus sylvatica. 5. Ancestors of the genus Fagus (Tanai, 1972; Wolfe, 1972; Kvacek & Walther, 1991; Momohara, 1992; Shen, 1992). In brackets: [number of secondary veins]. Present range ANCESTORS TAXONOMY (Shen, 1992) Subgenus/Sectionl Species Upper Pliocene Upper Miocene Lower Miocene China IKorea Japan Japan Engleriana! ' F japonica' •.....
Spread and retreat of Fagus in east Asia, North America and Europe are compared. Genera associated with Fagus in the past are compared with those at present. 2 Origin of the genus Fagus To reconstruct the history of the genus Fagus, age and location of fossil findings are important. Takhtajan (1969) states that the oldest (macro) fossil remains of Fagus are known from the middle Cretaceous, but he does not mention a location or source. Fagus and Nothofagus may have had a common ancestor in the Southern Hemisphere in Gondwanaland before the present continents separated (Poole, 1987).
14). 7); some characteristics are prominently winged nuts and long-hairy on vegetative organs: 13. Fagus sylvatica Linnaeus (1753. Sp. : 998) has a wide range from northern Iran to northwestern Europe. It includes Fagus sylvatica subsp. orientalis Greuter & Burdet (1981. 15). Some evolutionary relationships among the Fagus species can be derived from leaf characteristics. Leaf characteristics of present-day Fagus leaves can be used to relate them to fossil records. Tanai (1972) uses a leaf-index (length/width) and frequency of 32 CHAPTER 3 Palaeogene and Miocene in western North America and Europe, and the Miocene in Japan, Korea and Sachalin (Tanai, 1972).