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By Mario D. Lamberte, Robert C. Vogel, Roger Thomas Moyes

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Extra info for Beyond Microfinance: Building Inclusive Rural Financial Markets in Central Asia

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The Kyrgyz Republic stands in the middle. Its rate of inflation was highly erratic in the 1990s, but has not been a major problem since 2001. The structure of the economies of the six transition countries has changed considerably during the period 1990–2003 (Table 4). The share of the economies attributed to industry has fallen during this period. The industrial sectors have not recovered from the collapse of the Soviet Union. The exceptions are Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan whose oil sectors have been growing rapidly during this period.

The survey also showed that poverty was particularly severe in aimag centers and other rural towns. According to the Tajikistan Living Standards Survey of 1999, 83% of the population lived below the poverty line, with poverty incidence in most rural areas significantly higher than the national average. 5%. 6% for Kashkadarya. 8% in 2003. 5%. All six transition economies experienced hyperinflation in the first half of the 1990s (Table 3). Although sudden increases in prices of imported raw materials and finished products contributed to rapid increases in domestic prices, macroeconomic mismanagement contributed more.

More specifically, the governments in these countries provided highly subsidized loans to favored sectors of the economy, including unprofitable state-owned enterprises (SOEs), and resorted to money creation to finance high budget deficits. There was a further aggravating factor in the case 45 46 Beyond Microfinance: Building Inclusive Rural Financial Markets in Central Asia Table 3. Inflation Rate (%) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 0 Note: Change in Consumer Price Index. Sources: ADB Key Indicators 2004; EBRD Transition Update, April 2001; various country diagnostic studies.

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