By Giampietro Gasparini
Specialist laboratory and scientific researchers from worldwide assessment the best way to layout and assessment stories of tumor markers and look at their use in breast melanoma sufferers. The authors disguise either the most important advances in subtle molecular tools and the cutting-edge in traditional prognostic and predictive signs. one of the themes mentioned are the relevance of rigorous learn layout and directions for the validation reports of recent biomarkers, gene expression profiling through tissue microarrays, adjuvant systemic remedy, and using estrogen, progesterone, and epidermal development issue receptors as either prognostic and predictive symptoms. Highlights comprise the assessment of HER2 and EGFR relatives, of p53, and of UPA/PAI-1; the detection of infrequent cells in blood and marrow; and the detection and research of soluble, circulating markers.
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Extra info for Biomarkers in Breast Cancer (Cancer Drug Discovery and Development)
13. Look MP, van Putten WLJ, Duffy MJ, et al. Pooled analysis of prognostic impact of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and its inhibitor PAI-1 in 8377 breast cancer patients. J Natl Cancer Inst 2002;94:116–128. 14. Sweep CGJ, Geurts-Moespot J, Grebenschikov N, et al. External quality assessment of trans-European multicentre antigen determinations (ELISA) of urokinasetype plasminogen activator (uPA) and its type-1 inhibitor (PAI-1) in human breast cancer tissue extracts. Br J Cancer 1998;78:1434–1441.
Analytical and Reliability Criteria Prior to producing and subsequent reporting of test results it is the task of the laboratory to verify or establish performance specifications for each analytical procedure, irrespective whether the assay of interest has been developed in an academic institution or by a commercial company. In their instructions for use, kit manufacturers have often included disclaimers for misusing or overinterpreting the information included in their product information. It is common practice of diagnostic kit manufacturers to advice their clients that each laboratory should establish its own reference values in particular for specified populations or applications, irrespective of already available data provided by the manufacturer.
And tissue processing (cytosol fraction, membrane extracts) may severely influence the final assay results (3). Likewise, this also holds true for the quantification of biological markers in serum or plasma (4). Variable design of immuno(metric) assays results in the generation of different test results because different kits incorporate a broad spectrum of Chapter 2 / Biomarker Immunoassays 21 antibodies, sometimes with different antibody specificities and/or affinities. Also, the use of different standards and reference materials provided with the kits are a source of variations in test results.