Download Boards and Wards: A Review for the USMLE, Steps 2 and 3 by Carlos Ayala MD FACS, Brad Spellberg MD FIDSA PDF

By Carlos Ayala MD FACS, Brad Spellberg MD FIDSA

This moment version of forums and Wards: A evaluation for the USMLE Steps 2 & three deals the knowledge essential to triumph over the USMLE. This crucial overview publication, written in a succinct, high-yield define layout, positive aspects seventy five fresh, board-formatted Q&As and covers each one self-discipline of drugs showing at the USMLE Steps 2 & three, together with dermatology, radiology, and ophthalmology.

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Extra resources for Boards and Wards: A Review for the USMLE, Steps 2 and 3

Sample text

Tx = alkalinize urine, treat underlying disorder Si/Sx of stones = urinary colic = sharp, 10/10 pain, often described as the worst pain in the pt’s life, radiates from back → anterior pelvis/groin Tx = vigorous hydration, loop diuretics as needed TUMORS OF THE KIDNEY RENAL CELL CARCINOMA Most common renal malignancy, occurs in male smokers aged 50-70 Hematogenously disseminates by invading renal veins or the vena cava Si/Sx = hematuria, palpable mass, flank pain, fever, 2o polycythemia Tx = resection, systemic interleukin-2 immunotherapy, poor Px WILMS’ TUMOR 1.

Infection) 3. Dx = see type II below for criteria 4. Tx = insulin replacement required—oral hypoglycemics will not work! 5. Complication of type I diabetes = diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) 6. Sx/Si of DKA = Kussmaul hype rpnea (slow & deep breaths), abdominal pain, dehydration, (+) anion gap, urine/blood ketones, hyperkalemia, hyperglycemia, Mucor sinusitis = rapidly fatal fungal infxn seen in DKA 7. DKA Tx a. 1o Tx = FLUIDS!!! b. 2o = K+ & insulin c. 3o = add glucose to insulin drip if pt becomes normoglycemic—insulin is given to shut down ketogenesis, NOT to ↓ glucose, so insulin must be given until ketones are gone despite normal glucose!

ACE inhibitors slow progression of nephropathy 6. Monitorin: glycosylated hemoglobin A1 c (HgA1 c) a. Because of serum half- life of hemoglobin, HgA1c is a marker of the prior 3mo of therapeutic regimen b. Tight glucose control has been shown to reduce complications & mortality in IDDM & NIDDM, thus HgA1c is a crucial key tool to follow efficacy & compliance of diabetic Tx regimens c. HgA1c of <8 is recommended 7. Complication = hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic coma (HHNK) a. , infxn, trauma) b.

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