By A. Thomas Stavros, Cynthia L. Rapp, Steve H. Parker
This quantity is a whole and definitive advisor to acting and examining breast ultrasound examinations. The e-book explains each element of the exam in detail—from gear choice and interpreting strategies, to correlations among sonographic and mammographic findings, to specific characterization of sonographic abnormalities. Complementing the textual content are greater than 1,500 illustrations, together with ultrasound scans, corresponding mammographic pictures, and diagrams of key features of the examination.
Dr. Stavros completely explains the physics of breast ultrasound and the designated probes and different apparatus had to produce high-resolution photos of breast tissue. Chapters on breast ultrasound anatomy exhibit the anatomic aspect that may be noticeable on present gear and correlate sonographic and mammographic anatomic beneficial properties. next chapters describe exam tactics for comparing particular abnormalities and aspect the distinguishing good points of alternative cystic and stable breast lesions. additionally integrated is a bankruptcy on Doppler characterization of breast lesions.
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This allows a limited degree of electronic focusing. The limited number of short-axis elements and the relatively small aperture in the short axis limit electronic focusing power; thus, in addition to increasing the number of elements in the short axis, complex lens shapes are usually required to aid in focusing at different depths. 5-D array configuration requires up to 1,028 channels, some of which are created by multiplexing. 5-D array improves shortaxis lateral resolution in the near and middle fields but does not help much in the far field because aperture of the short axis is too small for deep electronic focusing.
Abnormally increased echogenicity of chronically extravasated silicone gel is one of the important findings that help to distinguish periimplant fluid lying between the capsule and shell from intracapsular rupture. With fundamental imaging (right), the artifactual echoes in the near field obscure the abnormally increased echogenicity of the extravasated gel, preventing definitive distinction of radial fold from intracapsular rupture. clearly cystic when scanned with coded harmonics (Fig. 2–16).
When the area of interest is located far medially, supine positioning is usually best. The patient is asked to bring her ipsilateral arm above her head and to place her ipsilateral hand behind her head. This positioning, in combination with some degree of compression of the breast with the transducer, accomplishes two important things. First, it thins the area of the breast being scanned to the greatest degree possible, ensuring that the 7- to 12-MHz probes used for BUS will adequately penetrate to the chest wall.