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0-km test track in Miyazaki, Japan. Since 1978, this center has developed several prototypes 30 INTRODUCTIONTO MAGNETIC LEVITATION Ground coil for nmnitlcinn and uiiirlanre \< 7- for suspension Superconducting coil Figure 1-19 Japanese superconducting EDL vehicle magnets and guideway. (After Kyotani, 1988) including one that achieved 500 km/hr. The latest version (Figure 1-1) uses low-temperature superconducting magnets on the vehicle and discrete copper coils in the guideway. Additional coils in the guideway carry active currents which are used to propel the vehicle.
The force between magnetic poles is analogous to the force between electric charges; that is, the force is proportional to the product of the strength of the two charges and is inversely proportional to the distance between them. 1) where r is the distance between the two poles. The pole strength of a bar magnet with high aspect ratio is proportional to the product of the average normal magnetic field on the field on the end and the area of the pole force. Forces are, however, vector quantities; in the case of the force between two poles, it is repulsive if PIP, > 0 and lies along the vector between them.
When a conductor moves in a magnetic field with velocity u , as in a superconducting Mag-Lev vehicle as it moves past a conducting guideway, there exists a nondimensional group similar to the Reynolds number in viscous-fluid mechanics. 8) where A is a length parameter. The quantity w = 2 / p 0 u A represents a characteristic velocity parameter. 18) In the last two expressions, the area S is defined as that enclosed by the closed curve C. ) Low-Frequency Electromagnetics The full set of Maxwell’s equations leads to propagating wave solutions.