By Gerald A. Epstein
Capital flight - the unrecorded export of capital from constructing international locations - frequently represents an important rate for constructing nations. It additionally poses a puzzle for normal monetary conception, which might are expecting that poorer nations be importers of capital as a result of its shortage. this case is frequently reversed, in spite of the fact that, with capital fleeing poorer international locations for wealthier, capital-abundant locales. utilizing a typical method for a collection of case reports at the measurement, reasons and outcomes of capital flight in constructing international locations, the participants tackle the level of capital flight, its results, and what may be performed to opposite it. Case stories of Brazil, China, Chile, South Africa, Thailand, Turkey and the center East offer wealthy descriptions of the capital flight phenomena in a number of contexts. the quantity features a specific description of capital flight estimation equipment, a bankruptcy surveying the impression of monetary liberalization, and a number of other chapters on controls designed to resolve the capital flight challenge. the 1st publication dedicated to the cautious calculation of capital flight and its old and coverage context, this quantity could be of significant curiosity to scholars and students within the parts of foreign finance and fiscal improvement.
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O R G A N I Z A T I O N A L C H A N G E EFFORT 33 traced to particular individuals, it may be difficult to prove its validity and authenticity in court. The Issue of Power. Table 2-1 also notes another key OD principle: to increase the power of all members of an organization. A 360" feedback process, especially one that becomes institutionalized, does just that. Although some managers might view a 360" feedback process-especially one involving upward feedback-as a depowering experience, the opposite will occur if they learn from their feedback and thus better develop expert and referent powers.
What types of questions should the survey ask? Should it ask openended questions? 5. H o w will 360" information be processed and then fed back to participants? 38 E X A M P L E s 0 F STKATEG I C 1 M P L E M E N TAT1 O N I'RO B L E MS 39 6. How will anonymity be preserved? 7. How will follow-up activities be pursued? For example, in the case of upward feedback, will targeted managers be encouraged to approach subordinates for additional feedback beyond that supplied on feedback forms? 8. How often should the organization repeat the process?
Of course, no one wants an inefficient or obviously flawed plan, so the questions listed above are eminently important to consider from a tactical viewpoint. A reading of the packages provided by consulting firms suggests they have tactical emphases. Some consulting firms offer off-the-shelf 360" surveys, while others will tailor-make the survey for the needs of the organization. Some will collect the actual data, while others only process data collected by in-house staff. Moreover, feedback forms designed by consulting firms come in all sizes and shapes, with various means of displaying data for the targeted participants.